Global Freedom of Expression

AF Holdings, LLC v. Does

Closed Expands Expression

Key Details

  • Mode of Expression
    Electronic / Internet-based Communication
  • Date of Decision
    May 27, 2014
  • Outcome
    Remanded for Decision in Accordance with Ruling
  • Case Number
    752 F.3d 990
  • Region & Country
    United States, North America
  • Judicial Body
    Appellate Court
  • Type of Law
    Civil Law
  • Themes
    Access to Public Information, Privacy, Data Protection and Retention
  • Tags
    Internet Service Providers

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Case Analysis

Case Summary and Outcome

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia held that in initiating a lawsuit against unknown defendants, the plaintiff is prohibited under Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 26(b)(1) from using discovery tools to obtain their information when no good faith belief exists as to whether the court has personal jurisdiction and proper venue over the defendants.


AF Holdings company brought a copyright infringement action in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia against 1,058 unknown individuals alleged of using an online file-sharing application to illegally download copyrighted movies.

As part of the pretrial discovery procedures, AF Holdings filed a motion to subpoena five internet service providers linked to the defendants’ Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.  The district court granted the motion compelling them to turn over the contact information of the underlying subscribers.

The service providers refused to comply with the subpoena pursuant to the Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 45(d)(3)(A), which authorizes the court to quash or modify a discovery motion that places undue burden on the requested party.   The service providers argued that the subpoena would create undue financial burden as AF Holdings had failed to show that the court had personal jurisdiction and proper venue over their subscribers.

The district court rejected their argument, reasoning that the procedural matters of the case, such as personal jurisdiction were premature as the discovery took place before the defendants were being named in the complaint.

Because the decision differed from several other federal courts, the district court certified its order for an immediate appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia.


Decision Overview

The underlying issue before the Court was whether AF Holdings’ subpoena placed undue burden on the internet service providers by compelling them to disclose the contact information of their subscribers who illegally downloaded the copyrighted movies.

According to the Court, in cases where no party has been named as defendant, the Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 26(d)(1) gives district courts the discretion to order discovery of a relevant matter based on good cause.  Specifically, when the plaintiff initiates a discovery tool against unknown defendants, there must be at least a good faith belief that such discovery will show that the court has personal jurisdiction over the defendants.

The Court ruled that AF Holdings did not have a good faith belief that the court had personal jurisdiction over the majority of unknown defendants.  According to the Court, AF Holdings made not effort in limiting the lawsuit and its discovery tools to subscribers who might be located within the district court. Instead, the subpoena compelled a number of internet service providers that did not provide IP addresses in the district.

Similarly, the Court ruled that AF Holdings did not have a good faith belief that the district court had proper venue and that all defendants could be properly joined in one lawsuit.  Accordingly, pursuant to Rule 26(b)(1), it concluded that the subpoena placed undue burden on the internet service providers and that AF Holdings did not have a good faith belief that the contact information of unknown subscribers could show that the district court had personal jurisdiction and proper venue over the individuals.

The Court vacated the district court’s order and remanded the case for further consideration. 

Decision Direction

Quick Info

Decision Direction indicates whether the decision expands or contracts expression based on an analysis of the case.

Expands Expression

The decision expands expression by protecting the identity of unknown internet users.

Global Perspective

Quick Info

Global Perspective demonstrates how the court’s decision was influenced by standards from one or many regions.

Table of Authorities

National standards, law or jurisprudence

  • U.S., Food Lion v. United Food & Commercial Workers Union, 103 F.3d 1007 (D.C. Cir. 1997)

    Judicial discovery procedures are limited only the relevant information concerning the subject matter of the lawsuit.

  • U.S., Oppenheimer Fund, Inc. v. Sanders, 437 U.S. 340 (1978)

    “when the purpose of a discovery request is to gather information for use in proceedings other than the pending suit, discovery properly is denied.” [p. 352]

Case Significance

Quick Info

Case significance refers to how influential the case is and how its significance changes over time.

The decision establishes a binding or persuasive precedent within its jurisdiction.

The decision the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia imposes binding authority on district courts within its jurisdiction.

Official Case Documents

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