Freedom of Association and Assembly / Protests, National Security, Political Expression
Vogt v. Germany
REGISTER NOW: Join us on October 3 & 4 for the “Regulating the Online Public Sphere: From Decentralized Networks to Public Regulation” conference
In Progress Mixed Outcome
Global Freedom of Expression is an academic initiative and therefore, we encourage you to share and republish excerpts of our content so long as they are not used for commercial purposes and you respect the following policy:
Attribution, copyright, and license information for media used by Global Freedom of Expression is available on our Credits page.
The U.S. District Court for the Western District of Kentucky Louisville Division upheld protesters right to claim for damages on various counts including assault and battery against audience members who attacked them, and against Trump and his campaign for inciting violence and negligence. Three individuals attended a Donald Trump for President rally with the intent to peacefully protest but when then-Presidential Candidate Donald Trump noticed them in the crowd he stated, “get ’em out of here.” In response, audience members Heimbach and Bamberger, as well as an unknown individual, began to physically attack the protesters in an alleged effort to remove them from the hall. Applying the three-part test from Brandenberg v. Ohio, the Court found it plausible that Trump’s speech advocated the use of force; that whether or not the Defendants intended for the violence to occur is a matter to be litigated; and that the requirement that violence was likely to result was met by allegations that violence actually occurred. Notably, the District Court rejected the defense that Trump’s speech was constitutionally protected speech under the First Amendment, stating “The law is clear….that ‘[s]peech that falls within th[e] category of incitement is not entitled to First Amendment protection.” With regard to the negligence claim, the Court reasoned that the complaint sufficiently established that Trump had a duty of care to the Plaintiffs and their harm was foreseeable. In these circumstances, the Court found the Plaintiffs’ incitement to riot claim plausible and denied the motion to dismiss.
On March 1, 2016, three individuals attended a Donald Trump for President rally with the intent to peacefully protest. When then-Presidential Candidate Donald Trump noticed the protesters in the crowd he stated, “get ’em out of here.” Defendants Heimbach and Bamberger, as well as an unknown individual, began to physically attack the protesters. One of the plaintiffs, Nwanguma, was violently shoved and punched, and was confronted with racial and sexist slurs by the defendants. Another plaintiff, a seventeen-year-old high school student, was punched in the stomach by an unknown audience member believed to be a member of the Traditionalist Worker Party, a white nationalist group that Defendant Heimbach was representing at the rally.
As the protesters were being assaulted, Trump allegedly stated, “don’t hurt ’em, if I say ‘go get ’em’ I get in trouble with the press . . .” The three protesters were violently removed from the rally by other audience members.
The three protesters filed a complaint in the U.S District Court for the Western District of Kentucky Louisville seeking damages for the actions of Donald Trump, the Trump presidential campaign, and the audience members who engaged in violence. The complaint alleged that audience members Heimbach and Bamberger committed assault and battery against them. The complaint further alleged that Donald Trump and the Trump Presidential campaign incited a riot and were vicariously liable and negligent for the violent actions of the audience members.
The Trump Defendants filed various motions to dismiss large parts of the complaint that alleged incitement, agency/vicarious liability, negligence, gross negligence, and recklessness arguing that the Court would not be able to reasonably infer from the pleaded factual content that the Defendants were liable for the alleged misconduct.
Bamberger likewise sought dismissal of all the claims against him while Heimbach did not seek dismissal of claims, instead he moved to strike certain portions of the complaint.
J. Hale denied a majority of the Defendants’ motions to dismiss. The Court’s reasoning was as follows:
Donald Trump and his campaign’s motion to dismiss three counts of the complaint, which accuse them of incitement, vicarious liability and negligence:
Motions to dismiss brought on behalf of Defendant Bamberger. Bamberger argued that the assault and battery claims were void because the Plaintiffs failed to allege that Nwanguma felt threatened or was actually injured when she was hit and shoved by the Defendant. The Court finds it is a reasonable inference that Nwanguma feared “unwanted touching” as required by Kentucky law. Furthermore, even if Nwanguma was only entitled to nominal damages, the claim would not be barred for failure to allege the nominal damages as a general allegation of damages includes nominal damages. The Court, however, granted the Bamberger’s motion to dismiss the portion of the claim requesting punitive damages because no cause of action for punitive damages existed but this doesn’t preclude recovery of a punitive damages award on future determination.
Defendant Heimbach’s request to strike parts of the claim referring to his membership of the white nationalist group and statements he made regarding how Trump could further the interests of the group. The Court said that portions of the pleading can only be struck if required for the purposes of justice and when there is no possible relation to the controversy. The statements in issue provided related background context for Heimbach’s alleged assault on non-white and anti-Trump individuals. Furthermore, the statements could potentially show that Trump Defendants were aware of the presence of white nationalists in the crowd and the racial slurs used by Heimbach were relevant to the reprehensible environment in which the alleged controversy occurred.
In summary, the Court allowed Trump Defendants’ motion to dismiss on the vicarious liability charge leaving the Plaintiffs’ incitement to riot and negligence claims to be litigated; the Court also granted Defendant Bamberger’s motion to dismiss a separate punitive action claim. All other motions to dismiss were denied and will be litigated.
J. Hale referred the matter to Magistrate Judge H. Brent Brennenstuhl for resolution of litigation planning and all non-dispositive matters.
(Note: though not addressed in this decision, the Plaintiff’s motion for a hearing to decide whether Donald Trump should be deposed prior to the Presidential inauguration was denied as moot.)
Decision Direction indicates whether the decision expands or contracts expression based on an analysis of the case.
While upholding protesters right to claim for damages on various counts including incitement to riot, negligence and assault and battery, the decision also reaffirms limitations on the First Amendment, specifically that speech inciting violence is not constitutionally protected.
Global Perspective demonstrates how the court’s decision was influenced by standards from one or many regions.
Case significance refers to how influential the case is and how its significance changes over time.
Let us know if you notice errors or if the case analysis needs revision.